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Noticiario genética


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Headline (Posted) Abstract
Machine learning uncovers 'genes of importance' in agriculture and medicine (24 Sep 2021) Machine learning can pinpoint 'genes of importance' that help crops to grow with less fertilizer, according to a new study. It can also predict additional traits in plants and disease outcomes in animals, illustrating its applications beyond agriculture.

An estrogen receptor that promotes cancer also causes drug resistance (23 Sep 2021)
Cancer cells proliferate despite a myriad of stresses -- from oxygen deprivation to chemotherapy -- that would kill any ordinary cell. Now, researchers have gained insight into how they may be doing this through the downstream activity of a powerful estrogen receptor. The discovery offers clues to overcoming resistance to therapies like tamoxifen t [+]

The defensive arsenal of plant roots (23 Sep 2021)
Plants adapt to their nutritional needs by modifying the permeability of their roots through the production or degradation of a cork-like layer called suberin. By studying the regulation of this protective layer in Arabidopsis thaliana, an international team has discovered four molecular factors responsible for the genetic activation of suberin. Th [+]

Breast cancers: Ruptures in cell nuclei promotes tumor invasion (23 Sep 2021) When cells multiply and migrate, they can be compressed and their nucleus may break open. This phenomenon causes DNA damage. Scientists have now shown that this facilitates the spread of cancer cells in breast tumors.

Deadly virus’s pathway to infect cells identified (23 Sep 2021) Researchers have discovered how Rift Valley fever virus enters cells, pointing the way to new therapies to treat deadly Rift Valley fever.

How poxviruses multiply (23 Sep 2021) Poxviruses have found a unique way of translating their genes into proteins in the infected organism. Scientists of the have been able to gain atomic-level insights into the functioning of the molecular machinery involved in the process.

Some animal species can survive successfully without sexual reproduction (22 Sep 2021) Studying a species of beetle mite, an international research team has demonstrated for the first time that animals can survive over very long periods of time (possibly millions of years) entirely without sex.

Theory of bubbles lifts cell biology into a new, more quantitative era (22 Sep 2021) A new study details how an established physics theory governing bubble and droplet formation led to a new understanding of the principles organizing the contents of living cells. The work marks a seismic shift in researchers' ability both to understand and control the complex soft materials within our cells.

Scientists ID sterol essential for oil accumulation in plants (22 Sep 2021)
Scientists seeking to unravel the details of how plants produce and accumulate oil have identified a new essential component of the assembly line. They discovered a particular sterol -- a molecule related to cholesterol -- that plays a key role in the formation of oil droplets. The findings may suggest new ways to engineer the oil content of a vari [+]

How proteins help yeast adapt to changing conditions (21 Sep 2021) Proteins in the brain called prions are well known for their involvement in causing disease, but a new study suggests they may help yeast cope with rapidly changing environmental conditions.

Regulator proteins or symphonies of genes: Statistical modeling points way toward unified theory for DNA folding (21 Sep 2021)
Researchers seek to point a way toward a unified theory for how DNA changes shape when expressing genes. The scientists use an approach called statistical mechanics to explore the phenomenon of so-called expression waves of gene regulation. The group hopes to reconcile a long-standing gulf between the two scientific fields most involved in the topi [+]

Researchers use exosome-based strategy to block HIV in mice (21 Sep 2021)
Researchers used exosomes, tiny nanoparticles capable of being taken up by cells, to deliver novel protein into the cells of mice infected with HIV. The protein attached to HIVs' genetic material and prevented it from replicating, resulting in reduced levels of HIV in the bone marrow, spleen, and brain. The study paves the way for the development o [+]

Darwin’s short-beak enigma solved (21 Sep 2021) Biologists discovered that a mutation in the ROR2 gene is linked to beak size reduction in numerous breeds of domestic pigeons. Surprisingly, different mutations in ROR2 also underlie a human disorder called Robinow syndrome. The ROR2 signaling pathway plays an important role in the craniofacial development of all vertebrates.

Scientists find a key to hepatitis C entry into cells (21 Sep 2021) Scientists describe the structure of a key protein on the surface of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) and how it interacts with its receptor found on some human cells. The findings provide new leads for developing an HCV vaccine.

How pruning the cytoskeleton moves the cell (20 Sep 2021)
Cells are characterized to be stable yet highly flexible. They constantly modify their shape and even move through tissue. These vital properties are based on a dynamically organized network of branched actin filaments, which generates pushing forces to move the cell membrane. An interdisciplinary team has now revealed a previously unknown mechanis [+]

How resistant germs transport toxins at molecular level (20 Sep 2021)
In order to counter the increasing threat posed by multi-drug resistant germs, we need to understand how their resistance mechanisms work. Transport proteins have an important role to play in this process. Scientists have now described the three-dimensional structure of transport protein Pdr5, found also in a similar form in pathogenic fungi. The r [+]

How do cells acquire their shapes? A new mechanism identified (17 Sep 2021) A multi-disciplinary team has discovered and characterized a new mechanism that a simple yeast cell uses to acquire its shape.

The microbial molecule that turns plants into 'zombies' (17 Sep 2021)
A newly discovered manipulation mechanism used by parasitic bacteria to slow down plant aging, may offer new ways to protect disease-threatened food crops. Research has identified a manipulation molecule produced by Phytoplasma bacteria to hijack plant development. When inside a plant, this protein causes key growth regulators to be broken down, tr [+]

Chemical discovery gets reluctant seeds to sprout (17 Sep 2021) Seeds that would otherwise lie dormant will spring to life with the aid of a new chemical.

Friend or foe? Researchers investigate the mysterious microbes living inside corals (16 Sep 2021) In a new article, researchers describe investigations into an enigmatic group of coral-infecting microbes.

Newly discovered two-cell color detection system of lamprey as clue to the evolution of color vision (16 Sep 2021)
Using the lamprey, researchers analyzed the photosensory mechanism of the pineal organ, also called the pineal gland, in non-mammalian vertebrates and discovered a novel mechanism of pineal color discrimination (two-cell system) in which two types of photoreceptor cells, each containing two different opsins, are used to detect color. This discovery [+]

Staying young, from the cells on up (16 Sep 2021) Researchers have discovered a new multi-enzyme complex that reprograms metabolism and overcomes 'cellular senescence,' when aging cells stop dividing.

How ribosomes are assembled in human cells (15 Sep 2021) Three-dimensional images of human small ribosomal subunits offer the most detailed explanation for how the cell's protein-making machines are assembled.

How to modify RNA: Crucial steps for adding chemical tag to transfer RNA revealed (15 Sep 2021) The chemical steps involved in an important cellular modification process that adds a chemical tag to some RNAs has been revealed in a new study. Interfering with this process in humans can lead to neuronal diseases, diabetes, and cancers.

Study shows protein that reverses aging of skeletal muscle (14 Sep 2021) A research team has shown that a protein named for the mythical land of youth in Irish folklore is effective at reversing aging in skeletal muscle cells.

Researchers discover hormonal regulatory module for root elongation (14 Sep 2021) Plants respond to mild nitrogen deficiency by elongating their lateral roots. In this way, more nitrogen can be absorbed than before. Researchers have now discovered a hormonal regulatory module that mediates the molecular processes of this adaptation. Brassinosteroids and auxins play a central role in this.

Proteins that outwit emerging and re-emerging viruses (14 Sep 2021) A family of proteins best known for their role in diminishing HIV infectivity may have the goods to outwit other emerging and re-emerging viruses, scientists have found.

Gut microbiota influences the ability to lose weight (14 Sep 2021) Gut microbiota influences the ability to lose weight in humans, according to new research.

Novel technology makes studying gene function easier, faster and more efficient (14 Sep 2021) Researchers have developed a drug-based genetic platform that enables scientists to track genetic manipulations in the laboratory fruit fly without having to screen thousands of individual flies.

Fixing protein production errors lengthens lifespan (14 Sep 2021) Reducing naturally occurring errors in protein synthesis (production) improves both health and lifespan, finds a new study in simple model organisms.

Building the ovarian environment from stem cells (14 Sep 2021)
Researchers have succeeded in reconstructing the ovarian environment using mouse stem cells. While growing immature egg cells -- known as oocytes -- from stem cells has been possible, the process required additional cells from embryos to provide the necessary cellular environment for the oocytes to mature. Now, researchers have used stem cells to r [+]

Thousands of tiny anchors keep our cells in place – and now we know how (13 Sep 2021)
Most of our cells are locked into place with the help of tiny anchors (called 'focal adhesions'). But if a cell morphs into a cancer cell, the chain can break, letting the cancer spread to other parts of the body. A team of scientists have now found the specific protein (or link) in the chain responsible for upholding the connection. The discovery [+]

Engineers grow pancreatic 'organoids' that mimic the real thing (13 Sep 2021) Engineers developed a way to grow tiny replicas of the pancreas, using either healthy or cancerous pancreatic cells. Their models could help researchers develop and test potential drugs for pancreatic cancer.

Engineered E. coli could make carbohydrates, renewable fuel, from carbon dioxide (10 Sep 2021) Researchers have engineered Escherichia coli bacteria to capture carbon dioxide using hydrogen gas to convert it into formic acid.

Caught in a web: Study reveals that immune cells cooperate to trap and kill bacteria (10 Sep 2021) Like a spider trapping its prey, our immune system cells cooperate to capture and 'eat' bacteria. The newly identified antibacterial mechanism could inspire novel strategies for combating Staphylococcus aureus (staph) and other extracellular bacterial pathogens.

Team sequences shea tree genome to support breeding and conservation efforts (09 Sep 2021)
The shea tree is best know as a source for a multimillion-dollar ingredient used in cosmetics, personal care products, pharmaceuticals and chocolate. But for hundreds of thousands of African families living in the 'shea belt' it is also a crucial source of nutrition and income. Despite its increasing demand, the slow-growing shea tree is being thre [+]

Food science meets cell science in bid to explain inner workings of membrane-free cell compartments (09 Sep 2021) Researchers report that food science principles have helped them determine how unusual droplets within cells stay organized and avoid dissolving into the rest of the cell's gelatinous interior.

Ancient marsupial 'junk DNA' might be useful after all, scientists say (09 Sep 2021) Viral fossils buried in DNA may protect against future virus infections, a new marsupial study suggests.

Evolution of mammals reveals 2,000 new genes key to longevity in humans (08 Sep 2021) The comparative genomic study includes genetic and phenotypic information of 57 species of mammals and identifies the greater stability of proteins as a common feature in the longest-living species.

Long-distance relationships for endangered corals (08 Sep 2021) Flash-frozen coral sperm was used to fertilize coral eggs from hundreds of miles away, this 'assisted gene flow' technique could be used as a conservation tool by introducing genetic variation into endangered corals and potentially accelerating their adaptation to climate change.



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Genética cotidiana (Prof. José Luis Micol Molina) 

Selección de noticias sobre genética aparecida en medios de comunicación español, y se añade un breve comentario. Se incluye un enlace a la noticia en español y cuando es posible, otro al artículo científico original en inglés. (Prof. José Luis Micol Molina, Catedrático de Genética, Universidad Miguel Hernández)


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