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Noticiario genética


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Headline (Posted) Abstract
How the smallest bacterial pathogens outwit host immune defenses by stealth mechanisms (20 Oct 2017)
Despite their relatively small genome, mycoplasmas can cause persistent and difficult-to-treat infections in humans and animals. A study has shown how mycoplasmas escape the immune response. Mycoplasmas 'mask' themselves: They use their small genome in a clever way and compensate for the loss of an enzyme that is important for this process. This co [+]

Chromosomes may be knotted (20 Oct 2017) Little is known about the structures of our genetic material, chromosomes, which consist of long strings that -- according to our experience -- should be likely to become knotted. However, up to now it has not been possible to study this experimentally. Researchers have now found that chromosomes may indeed be knotted.

Evolution in your back garden: Great tits may be adapting their beaks to birdfeeders (19 Oct 2017) A British enthusiasm for feeding birds may have caused UK great tits to have evolved longer beaks than their European counterparts, according to new research. The findings identify for the first time the genetic differences between UK and Dutch great tits which researchers were then able to link to longer beaks in UK birds.

Water striders illustrate evolutionary processes (19 Oct 2017)
How do new species arise and diversify in nature? Natural selection offers an explanation, but the genetic and environmental conditions behind this mechanism are still poorly understood. Researchers have just figured out how water striders (family Veliidae) of the genus Rhagovelia developed fan-like structures at the tips of their legs. These struc [+]

Gut bacterium indirectly causes symptoms by altering fruit fly microbiome (19 Oct 2017) CagA, a protein produced by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori, can alter the population of microbes living in the fruit fly gut, leading to disease symptoms, according to new research.

Last unknown structure of HIV-1 solved, another step in efforts to disarm the AIDS virus (19 Oct 2017) Researchers have solved the last unknown protein structure of HIV-1, the retrovirus that can cause AIDS. This will further explain how the virus infects human cells and how progeny viruses are assembled and released from infected cells.

Obesity: Engineered proteins lower body weight in mice, rats and primates (18 Oct 2017) Researchers have created engineered proteins that lowered body weight, bloodstream insulin, and cholesterol levels in obese mice, rats, and primates.

Duplications of noncoding DNA may have affected evolution of human-specific traits (18 Oct 2017)
Duplications of large segments of noncoding DNA in the human genome may have contributed to the emergence of differences between humans and nonhuman primates, according to new results. Identifying these duplications, which include regulatory sequences, and their effect on traits and behavior may help scientists explain genetic contributions to huma [+]

Death by a thousand cuts? Not for small populations (18 Oct 2017) New research provides a look at how certain species survive by evolving a greater ability to weed out harmful mutations -- a new concept called 'drift robustness'.

Turning brain cells into skin cells (18 Oct 2017) A new study reveals that it is possible to repurpose the function of different mature cells across the body and harvest new tissue and organs from these cells.

Gene therapy can cure lameness in horses, research finds (18 Oct 2017) Injecting DNA into injured horse tendons and ligaments can cure lameness, new research has found.

Yeast spotlights genetic variation's link to drug resistance (18 Oct 2017) Researchers have shown that genetic diversity plays a key role in enabling drug resistance to evolve. Scientists show that high genetic diversity can prime new mutations that cause drug resistance. The study has implications for our understanding of the evolution of resistance to antimicrobial and anticancer drugs.

Single cell level sorting technology uses sound waves (17 Oct 2017) Researchers have developed a highly accurate single cell sorting technology using focused sound waves. This new technology enables rapid and accurate isolation of single cells from complex biological samples, which will facilitate the broad application of single cell analysis toward precision medicine.

Need for speed makes genome editing efficient, if not better (17 Oct 2017) Researchers have developed a computational model to quantify the mechanism by which CRISPR-Cas9 proteins find their genome-editing targets.

'Hiding in plain sight:' Discovery raises questions over scale of overlooked biodiversity (17 Oct 2017) Scientists have used cutting edge DNA technology to demonstrate that one of Europe's top freshwater predators is actually two species rather than one.

Pair of discoveries illuminate new paths to flu and anthrax treatments (17 Oct 2017) Two recent studies have set the research groundwork for new avenues to treat influenza and anthrax poisoning. The studies used a series of experiments to identify key pathways and mechanisms previously unknown or overlooked in the body's defenses, and possible treatments already developed.

Oysters offer hot spot for reducing nutrient pollution (16 Oct 2017) Marine scientists have quantified potentially denitrifying bacteria in the oyster gut and shell, with important implications for efforts to reduce nutrient levels in coastal waters through oyster restoration.

How cells induce inflammation upon detection of cytoplasmic DNA (16 Oct 2017) A research team has elucidated the mechanism by which human cells induce inflammation upon detection of cytoplasmic DNA. Notably, the signal network involved differs from that used in the same context in mice.

Cell biology: Proteins may prevent dysfunction, disease by relaxing, study shows (13 Oct 2017)
A team of researchers used simulations and X-rays to conclude that disordered proteins remain unfolded and expanded as they float loose in the cytoplasm of a cell. The answer affects how we envision the movement of a protein through its life--essential for understanding how proteins fold, what goes wrong during disorders and disease and how to mode [+]

How E. coli bacteria adapt under stress (13 Oct 2017)
Researchers have developed a genome-scale model that can accurately predict how E. coli bacteria respond to temperature changes and genetic mutations. The work sheds light on how cells adapt under environmental stress and has applications in precision medicine, where adaptive cell modeling could provide patient-specific treatments for bacterial inf [+]

3D packaging of DNA regulates cell identity (12 Oct 2017) The ability of a stem cell to differentiate into cardiac muscle (and by extension other cell types) depends on what portions of the genome are available for activation, which is controlled by the location of DNA in a cell's nucleus, new research suggests.

Cell biology: Cell contacts in embryonic development determine cellular fate (12 Oct 2017)
The average human consists of about 37.2 trillion cells. But not all cells are created equal: while muscle cells contain the molecular machinery to contract and relax your muscles, some neurons send meter-long axons from the spinal cord to the tip of your toes, and red blood cells bind oxygen and transport it around the body. How does a cell 'know' [+]

The sea cucumber genome points to genes for tissue regeneration (12 Oct 2017) A new high-definition genome sequence of the sea cucumber provides molecular insights into its ability to regenerate.

How switches work in bacteria (12 Oct 2017)
Many bacteria have molecular control elements, via which they can switch on and off genes. These riboswitches also open up new options in the development of antibiotics or for the detection and decomposition of environmental toxins. Researchers have now used light optical microscopy of single molecules to fundamentally study the way riboswitches wo [+]

Universality and specificity in protein motions (12 Oct 2017) Although proteins have very different function functions, or specialties, in living cells, they share the general characteristics -- the same universality -- in their motions, say scientists. Their motion is much like mountain landslides or wildfires, they report.

Novel mechanism protects mitochondrial DNA (12 Oct 2017) Researchers have discovered a novel mechanism safeguarding mitochondrial DNA. A central part of the protective mechanism is an unusual enzyme, PrimPol, which can re-initiate mitochondrial DNA replication after damage.

Pioneering discovery of an odor-detecting receptor enhancer (12 Oct 2017)
Scientists have identified a regulatory sequence that turns gene expression on, or simply an enhancer, for odor-detecting receptors, which form one of the largest gene clusters in the mouse genome. This was done using a combination of research methods, including the CRISPR-Cas9 system, which is a genome editing technique, the Bacillus subtilis synt [+]

Genes critical for hearing identified (12 Oct 2017) Fifty-two previously unidentified genes that are critical for hearing have been found by testing over 3,000 mouse genes. The newly discovered genes will provide insights into the causes of hearing loss in humans, say scientists. The study tested 3,006 strains of 'knock-out' mice for signs of hearing loss.

New way to prevent genetically engineered and unaltered organisms from producing offspring (12 Oct 2017)
A major obstacle to applying genetic engineering to benefit humans and the environment is the risk that organisms whose genes have been altered might produce offspring with their natural counterparts, releasing the novel genes into the wild. Now, researchers have developed a promising way to prevent such interbreeding. The approach, called 'synthet [+]

Deciphering biological meaning from an atlas of gene expression across 42 tissue types (11 Oct 2017)
The human genome encodes instructions for which genes are expressed in what cell type, along with other molecules that control how much and when these genes are expressed. Variation in the regulation of gene expression gives rise to the diverse tissue types, with diverse functions, in the human body. Finding new clues about the molecular origins of [+]

Defense mechanism to kill intestinal worms (11 Oct 2017) Researchers have discovered a mechanism that kills intestinal worms, which affect nearly a third of the world's population as well as livestock.

Unraveling the genetics of disc disease in dogs (11 Oct 2017)
Since the early 1900s, veterinarians have observed intervertebral disc disease -- a common cause of back pain, rear limb paralysis and inability to walk -- more frequently in dogs with short legs (dachshund, French bulldog, and Pekingese to name a few.) But they couldn't pinpoint why -- until now.Why short-legged dogs more likely to develop painful [+]

New genetic clue to peanut allergy (11 Oct 2017) Researchers have pinpointed a new gene associated with peanut allergy, offering further evidence that genes play a role in the development of food allergies and opening the door to future research, improved diagnostics and new treatment options.

Some plants grow bigger -- and 'meaner' -- when clipped, study finds (11 Oct 2017)
Some plants behave like the mythical monster Hydra: Cut off their heads and they grow back, bigger and better than before. A new study finds that these 'overcompensators,' as they are called, also augment their defensive chemistry -- think plant venom -- when they are clipped. The discovery could lead to the development of new methods for boosting [+]

Predatory bacteria: The quest for a new class of antibiotics (11 Oct 2017) Researchers take one step forward toward understanding and genetically manipulating B. bacteriovorus, a type of bacteria with promising potential use as a living antibiotic.

Gene to help hybrid wheat breeding identified (11 Oct 2017) Researchers have identified a naturally occurring wheat gene that, when turned off, eliminates self-pollination but still allows cross-pollination -- opening the way for breeding high-yielding hybrid wheats.

Hibernating ribosomes help bacteria survive (10 Oct 2017) Scientists are uncovering the secrets of how ribosomes hibernate under stressful conditions.

Unexpected regulation of transcription factors critical to development (10 Oct 2017) Developmental biologists have for the first time described how two transcription factors that are 'absolutely essential for human development' are regulated by a cell surface metalloprotease known as ADAM13. The discovery adds to knowledge of how cells migrate in vertebrate embryos, how stem cells differentiate and how cancer cells metastasize.

A molecular garbage disposal complex has a role in packing the genome (10 Oct 2017) New research has found that the proteasome, an essential protein complex that breaks down proteins in cells, has another unexpected function: directly regulating the packing of DNA in the nucleus.

Protein restricts sap uptake by aphids (10 Oct 2017) Researchers have discovered how plants can defend themselves against aphids. They recorded aphid behavior on video, and identified a plant protein that keeps aphids from feeding.



Noticias sobre Genética | EL PAÍS


Genética cotidiana (Prof. José Luis Micol Molina) 

Selección de noticias sobre genética aparecida en medios de comunicación español, y se añade un breve comentario. Se incluye un enlace a la noticia en español y cuando es posible, otro al artículo científico original en inglés. (Prof. José Luis Micol Molina, Catedrático de Genética, Universidad Miguel Hernández)


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