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Noticiario genética

            

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Genetics News
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Headline (Posted) Abstract
Genetic strategy reverses insecticide resistance (14 Jan 2022) Using CRISPR/Cas9 technology, scientists have genetically engineered a method to reverse insecticide resistance. The gene replacement method offers a new way to fight deadly malaria spread and reduce the use of pesticides that protect valuable food crops.

New study sheds light on origins of life on Earth (14 Jan 2022) Addressing one of the most profoundly unanswered questions in biology, a team has discovered the structures of proteins that may be responsible for the origins of life in the primordial soup of ancient Earth.

Cellular receptors identified for eastern equine encephalitis (14 Jan 2022) A new study has identified a set of cellular receptors for at least three related alphaviruses shared across mosquitoes, humans, and animals that host the virus.

Biologists pinpoint key factor in immune system response to viral infection (14 Jan 2022) Researchers studying how small worms defend themselves against pathogens have discovered a gene that acts as a first-line response against infection. They identified 'ZIP-1' as a centralized hub for immune response, a finding could have implications for understanding human immunity against viruses.

Hostile takeover in the cell: Pathogens hijack host mitochondria (14 Jan 2022) A research team reports that a parasite tricks mitochondria into shedding large structures from their 'skin', thus turning off their defenses.

Fuzzy molecular threesome is basis of gene expression (13 Jan 2022) Scientists have investigated how genes are accessed if so tightly packed away? How can these molecules be broken apart to promote gene expression?

Plants: RNA notes to self (13 Jan 2022) Plants need an internal communication system to coordinate their development and growth. Within a plant, cells message each other with pieces of RNA. A professor discovered a protein that carries these RNA messages between cells. Tinkering with this communication system may help crops grow better and adapt faster to their environment.

Human immune system uses ancient family of cell death proteins also found in bacteria (13 Jan 2022) The human immune system, that marvel of complexity, subtlety, and sophistication, includes a billion-year-old family of proteins used by bacteria to defend themselves against viruses, scientists have discovered.

The 'gold' of the Midas cichlids (13 Jan 2022) Evolutionary biologists describe a new gene in the Central American Midas cichlid fish and identify a variant caused by a 'jumping gene' (transposon). This variant of the 'goldentouch gene' is most likely the reason for the golden coloration that can be found in a small percentage of animals of this species complex.

Deadly combination: New direct trigger for cell death discovered (13 Jan 2022) Understanding the basic mechanisms that lead to cell death (apoptosis) is essential for the development of therapies for cancer and other diseases. Scientists have now discovered a protein interaction that directly triggers cell death.

Unprecedented cellular maps of tissues enabled by new tool (13 Jan 2022) The study of the human body at single-cell level has received a boost with the creation of a new tool, which will allow researchers to see not only the function of cells, but also where they are situated within tissues. The tool, called cell2location, has been developed by researchers.

New cloud-based platform opens genomics data to all (12 Jan 2022)
Harnessing the power of genomics to find risk factors for major diseases or search for relatives relies on the costly and time-consuming ability to analyze huge numbers of genomes. Computer scientists have now leveled the playing field by creating a cloud-based platform that grants genomics researchers easy access to one of the world's largest geno [+]


New spheres of knowledge on the origin of life (12 Jan 2022)
Researchers experimentally evolved rod-shaped E. coli in conditions that mimic the primordial environment, by providing oleic-acid vesicles as a nutrient source rather than glucose. As the cells adapted to the new conditions and increased their growth rate, they became smaller and spherical. Each of the experimental lineages adapted in diverse ways [+]


Epigenetic mechanisms for parent-specific genetic activation decoded (12 Jan 2022) Hereditary diseases as well as cancers and cardiovascular diseases may be associated with a phenomenon known as genomic imprinting, in which only the maternally or paternally inherited gene is active. An international research team has now investigated the mechanisms responsible for the deactivation of the genes.

Study challenges evolutionary theory that DNA mutations are random (12 Jan 2022) Researchers have found that DNA mutations are not random. This changes our understanding of evolution and could one day help researchers breed better crops or even help humans fight cancer.

New discovery on regulation of organelle contacts (12 Jan 2022) A pioneering study has revealed how cellular compartments (organelles) are able to control how much they interact and cooperate.

Using only 100 atoms, electric fields can be detected and changed (11 Jan 2022)
The body is full of electrical signals. Researchers have now created a new nanomaterial that is capable of both detecting and modulating the electric field. This new material can be used in vitro studies for 'reading and writing' the electric field without damaging nearby cells and tissue. In addition, researchers can use this material to conduct i [+]


Plants rely on the CLASSY gene family to diversify their epigenomes (11 Jan 2022) A team has shown that the CLASSY gene family regulates which parts of the genome are turned off in a tissue-specific manner. The work identifies the CLSY genes as major factors underlying epigenetic diversity in plant tissues. This research has broad implications for both agriculture and medicine.

Researchers switch off gene to switch on ultraviolet in butterfly wings (10 Jan 2022)
Researchers have identified a gene that determines whether ultraviolet iridescence shows up in the wings of butterflies. The team showed that removing the gene in butterflies whose wings lack UV coloration leads to bright patches of UV iridescence in their wings. According to the researchers, the gene plays a critical role in the evolutionary proce [+]


Scientists uncover new information about cellular death process, previously thought to be irreversible (10 Jan 2022)
Researchers report a new method for analyzing pyroptosis -- the process of cell death that is usually caused by infections and results in excess inflammation in the body -- and show that the process, long thought to be irreversible once initiated, can in fact be halted and controlled. The discovery means that scientists have a new way to study dise [+]


Chemists use DNA to build the world’s tiniest antenna (10 Jan 2022) An easy-to-use device promises to help scientists better understand natural and human-designed nanotechnologies -- and identify new drugs.

A crowning achievement in understanding head development (10 Jan 2022)
To understand how cranial neural crest cells (CNCCs) help form many more body parts than the skull and facial skeleton, scientists from the lab of Gage Crump created a series of atlases over time to understand the molecular decisions by which CNCCs commit to forming specific tissues in developing zebrafish. The researchers labeled and tracked CNCCs [+]


Mechanism that helps immune cells to invade tissues (06 Jan 2022) To fight infections and heal injuries, immune cells need to enter tissue. They also need to invade tumors to fight them from within. Scientists have now discovered how immune cells protect their sensitive insides as they squeeze between tissue cells. The team lays the foundation for identifying new targets in cancer treatment.

'Simple' bacteria found to organize in elaborate patterns (06 Jan 2022) Researchers have discovered that biofilms, bacterial communities found throughout the living world, are far more advanced than previously believed. Scientists found that biofilm cells are organized in elaborate patterns, a feature that previously only had been associated with higher-level organisms such as plants and animals.

Preserving the goods: A new technique for isolating intact lysosomes from cell cultures (06 Jan 2022)
Lysosomes are organelles that play essential roles in cellular digestion and waste management, and lysosomal dysfunction typically leads to serious diseases. In a recent study, scientists developed a novel technique to extract intact lysosomes from cells using magnetic nanoparticles. Their approach is much faster than previous methods and yields sa [+]


Decoding protein assembly dynamics with artificial protein needles (06 Jan 2022)
Protein assembly is essential for the formation of ordered biological structures, but imagine engineering one! This is exactly what researchers have now accomplished with protein needles. By regulating the tip-to-tip interactions of these needles, they allowed for their self-assembly into lattice structures, ordered monomeric states, and fiber asse [+]


Division of labor among genetic switches (05 Jan 2022) Two X chromosomes are actually one too many. Female mammalian cells hence switch off one of them – but only when the cells start to specialize into tissues. A research team has now discovered how cells 'count' their chromosomes and at the same time sense which stage of development they are in.

New research shows gene exchange between viruses and hosts drives evolution (05 Jan 2022) The first comprehensive analysis of viral horizontal gene transfer (HGT) illustrates the extent to which viruses pick up genes from their hosts to hone their infection process, while at the same time hosts also co-opt useful viral genes.

How plants respond to heat stress (04 Jan 2022) Plants, like other organisms, can be severely affected by heat stress. To increase their chances of survival, they activate the heat shock response, a molecular pathway also employed by human and animal cells for stress protection. Researchers have now discovered that plant steroid hormones can promote this response in plants.

Inverted order: The direction of your DNA may be as important as which parent it came from (04 Jan 2022)
Researchers generated mice with a specific DNA sequence inverted to determine if orientation affects expression of a gene called H19. Expression can also be impacted if the surrounding DNA is altered by a process called methylation. Interestingly, methylation was only relevant when the inverted sequence was inherited from the father. When inherited [+]


Researchers develop a model of yeast nuclear pore complex (03 Jan 2022) Using rapid plunge freezing and cryo-EM (electron microscopy) with computational methods, researchers have produced a comprehensive model of the yeast NPC (nuclear pore complex) which reveals the interconnected architecture of its core scaffold.

New method to complete genetic data (03 Jan 2022)
Genome sequencing is now much cheaper than it was, but still accounts for a large part of the costs in animal and plant breeding. One trick to reduce these costs is to sequence only a very small and randomly selected part of the genome and to complete the remaining gaps using mathematical and statistical techniques. Researchers have developed a new [+]


High-resolution lab experiments show how cells 'eat' (30 Dec 2021) A new study shows how cell membranes curve to create the 'mouths' that allow the cells to consume things that surround them.

Leveraging space to advance stem cell science and medicine (30 Dec 2021) The secret to producing large batches of stem cells more efficiently may lie in the near-zero gravity conditions of space. Scientists have found that microgravity has the potential to contribute to life-saving advances on Earth by facilitating the rapid mass production of stem cells.

Radioactive radiation could damage biological tissue also via a previously unnoticed mechanism (27 Dec 2021)
When cells are exposed to ionizing radiation, more destructive chain reactions may occur than previously thought. An international team led by researchers has now observed intermolecular Coulombic decay in organic molecules. This is triggered by ionizing radiation such as from radioactivity or from space. The effect damages two neighboring molecule [+]


‘Battle of the sexes’ begins in womb as father and mother’s genes tussle over nutrition (27 Dec 2021) Scientists have identified a key signal that the fetus uses to control its supply of nutrients from the placenta, revealing a tug-of-war between genes inherited from the father and from the mother. The study, carried out in mice, could help explain why some babies grow poorly in the womb.

Communication between cells plays a major role in deciding their fate (23 Dec 2021) Scientists have found a way to prove that biochemical signals sent from cell to cell play an important role in determining how those cells develop, findings that can help explain how stem cells differentiate and how cancer arises and proliferates, possibly leading to new treatments.

Blueprint reveals how plants build a sugar transport lane (23 Dec 2021) A tiny region at the root tip has been found to be responsible for orchestrating the growth and development of the complex network of vascular tissues that transport sugars through plant roots.

HIV infection: Better understanding the reservoir of virus in the body (23 Dec 2021) Researchers have developed a method that allows resting human immune cells to be genetically analyzed in detail for the first time.

Microorganism sheds new light on cancer resistance (23 Dec 2021)
Scientists describe T. adhaerens' unusual behavior, including its capacity to repair its DNA even after significant radiation damage and to extrude injured cells, which later die. The findings advance scientific investigations of natural cancer-suppression mechanisms across life. Insights gleaned from these evolutionary adaptations may find their w [+]


 


  

Noticias sobre Genética | EL PAÍS

 

Genética cotidiana (Prof. José Luis Micol Molina) 

 
Selección de noticias sobre genética aparecida en medios de comunicación español, y se añade un breve comentario. Se incluye un enlace a la noticia en español y cuando es posible, otro al artículo científico original en inglés. (Prof. José Luis Micol Molina, Catedrático de Genética, Universidad Miguel Hernández)

 

Blog Genes, genomas y otras genialidades (Prof. Ana Aguirre) Universidad del País Vasco

Este blog surge del interés de la autora por la formación de los estudiantes de Grado y de posgrado del ámbito de las Biociencias. Está concebido como un complemento formativo e informativo para estudiantes universitarios y para cualquier persona interesada por conocer de cerca los avances que suceden en el campo de la Genética, de la Biología Molecular y de otras áreas afines. 

 



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