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Noticiario genética


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Headline (Posted) Abstract
Student uses zebrafish to study spinal deformities (22 Jan 2021) Molecular developmental biologists used zebrafish embryos to study a gene mutation that causes scoliosis, a sideways curvature of the spine that typically occurs in humans just before puberty.

Plant genome editing expanded with newly engineered variant of CRISPR-Cas9 (22 Jan 2021) Scientists have created a newly engineered variant of the famed gene editing tool CRISPR-Cas9. SpRY removes the barriers of what can and can't be targeted for gene editing, making it possible for the first time to target nearly any genomic sequence in plants for potential mutation.

New variety of paintbrush lily developed by a novel plant tissue culture technique (22 Jan 2021) Scientists have developed simultaneous triploid and hexaploid varieties of Haemanthus albiflos by the application of endosperm culture, thus extending the use of this technique.

Vegan diet significantly remodels metabolism in young children (21 Jan 2021) Researchers report a comprehensive pilot study on the metabolic effects of full vegan diet on young children. The study found vegan children to have remarkably altered metabolism and lower vitamin A and D status compared to children with no special diet.

Spontaneous cell fusions amplify genetic diversity within tumors (21 Jan 2021)
Scientists generally believe that cancers lack a powerful and important diversification mechanism available to pathogenic microbes - the ability to exchange and recombine genetic material between different cells. However, researchers now demonstrate that this belief is wrong and that cancer cells are capable of exchanging and recombining their gene [+]

See how they run: 'Exercise protein' doubles running capacity, restores function and extends healthy lifespans in older mice (21 Jan 2021) A new study shows that humans express a powerful hormone during exercise and that treating mice with the hormone improves physical performance, capacity and fitness. Researchers say the findings present new possibilities for addressing age-related physical decline.

Early breeding reduced harmful mutations in sorghum (21 Jan 2021) A new Cornell University study found that harmful mutations in sorghum landraces - early domesticated crops - decreased compared to their wild relatives through the course of domestication and breeding.

Message in a bottle: Info-rich bubbles respond to antibiotics (21 Jan 2021)
Researchers describe the effects of antibiotics on membrane vesicles, demonstrating that such drugs actively modify the properties of vesicle transport. Under the influence of antibiotics, MVs were produced and released by bacteria in greater abundance and traveled faster and further from their origin. The work sheds new light on these important in [+]

Feral colonies provide clues for enhancing honey bee tolerance to pathogens (21 Jan 2021) Understanding the genetic and environmental factors that enable some feral honey bee colonies to tolerate pathogens and survive the winter in the absence of beekeeping management may help lead to breeding stocks that would enhance survival of managed colonies, according to a study.

How cells 'eat' their own fluid components (21 Jan 2021)
Autophagy is a fundamental cellular process by which cells capture and degrade their own dysfunctional or superfluous components for degradation and recycling. Recent research has revealed that phase separated droplets have a range of important functions in cells. Researchers has unraveled the mechanisms underpinning both how these droplets are cap [+]

Antibiotic resistance may spread even more easily than expected (21 Jan 2021) Pathogenic bacteria in humans are developing resistance to antibiotics much faster than expected. Now, computational research shows that one reason could be significant genetic transfer between bacteria in our ecosystems and to humans. This work has also led to new tools for resistance researchers.

Breakthrough in understanding 'tummy bug' bacteria (20 Jan 2021) Scientists have discovered how bacteria commonly responsible for seafood-related stomach upsets can go dormant and then 'wake up'.

Exploration of toxic Tiger Rattlesnake venom advances use of genetic science techniques (19 Jan 2021) A team of researchers has decoded the genome of the Tiger Rattlesnake, which has venom 40 times more toxic than that of Eastern Diamondback Rattlesnakes, the largest venomous snake in North America.

Scientists reveal structure of plants' energy generators (19 Jan 2021) Researchers have revealed the first atomic structures of the respiratory apparatus that plants use to generate energy.

Genetic rewiring behind spectacular evolutionary explosion in East Africa (19 Jan 2021) Genetic rewiring could have driven an evolutionary explosion in the shapes, sizes and adaptations of cichlid fish, in East Africa's answer to Darwin's Galapagos finches.

Gene-editing 'scissor' tool may also be a 'dimmer switch' (19 Jan 2021) In a series of experiments with laboratory-cultured bacteria, scientists have found evidence that there is a second role for the widely used gene-cutting system CRISPR-Cas9 -- as a genetic dimmer switch for CRISPR-Cas9 genes.

Lasers and molecular tethers create perfectly patterned platforms for tissue engineering (18 Jan 2021)
Researchers have developed a technique to modify naturally occurring biological polymers with protein-based biochemical messages that affect cell behavior. Their approach uses a near-infrared laser to trigger chemical adhesion of protein messages to a scaffold made from biological polymers such as collagen, a connective tissue found throughout our [+]

RNA's mysterious folding process (15 Jan 2021) Using data from RNA-folding experiments, the researchers generated the first-ever data-driven movies of how RNA folds as it is made by cellular machinery. By watching their videos of this folding occur, the researchers discovered that RNA often folds in surprising, perhaps unintuitive ways, such as tying itself into knots.

Basis for the essential cellular powerhouses (15 Jan 2021) Researchers have solved the operating mode of the barrel pore protein assembly in the mitochondrial outer membrane.

Designer cytokine makes paralyzed mice walk again (15 Jan 2021) Using gene therapy, a research team has succeeded in getting mice to walk again after a complete cross-sectional injury. The nerve cells produced the curative protein themselves.

Snakes evolve a magnetic way to be resistant to venom (15 Jan 2021) Certain snakes have evolved a unique genetic trick to avoid being eaten by venomous snakes, according to new research. The technique works in a manner similar to the way two sides of a magnet repel each other.

How plants produce defensive toxins without harming themselves (14 Jan 2021)
Scientists describe the biosynthesis and exact mode of action of diterpene glycosides in wild tobacco. These antiherbivory compounds attack the cell membrane. To protect themselves from their own toxins, tobacco plants store them in a non-toxic form. Autotoxicity and the protection against it seem to play a greater role in the evolution of plant de [+]

Model analyzes how viruses escape the immune system (14 Jan 2021)
MIT researchers have devised a way to computationally model viral escape, using models that were originally developed to model language. The model can predict which sections of viral surface proteins, including those of influenza, HIV, and SARS-CoV-2, are more likely to mutate in a way that allows the virus to evade the human immune system. It can [+]

Not as simple as thought: How bacteria form membrane vesicles (14 Jan 2021)
Researchers have identified a novel mechanism by which bacteria form membrane vesicles, which bacteria employ to communicate with each other or to defend themselves against antibiotics. By studying mycolic acid-containing bacteria (MCB), which also includes tuberculosis-causing bacteria, the researchers demonstrated that environmental stimuli dicta [+]

Reverse engineering 3D chromosome models for individual cells (14 Jan 2021) A new computational technique that uses heat map data to reverse engineer highly detailed models of chromosomes and researchers have uncovered new information about the close spatial relationships that chromatin folding creates between genes.

Physical virology shows the dynamics of virus reproduction (14 Jan 2021) The reproductive cycle of viruses requires self-assembly, maturation of virus particles and, after infection, the release of genetic material into a host cell. New physics-based technologies allow scientists to study the dynamics of this cycle and may eventually lead to new treatments.

Cancer research reveals how mutations in a specific gene cause different types of disease (14 Jan 2021) Leading cancer expert solve long-standing question of how various types of mutations in just one gene cause different types of diseases.

Rare quadruple-helix DNA found in living human cells with glowing probes (13 Jan 2021) New probes allow scientists to see four-stranded DNA interacting with molecules inside living human cells, unravelling its role in cellular processes.

Asian butterfly mimics other species to defend against predators (13 Jan 2021) Many animal and insect species use Batesian mimicry -- mimicking a poisonous species -- as a defense against predators. The common palmfly Elymnias hypermnestra -- a species of satyrine butterfly that is found throughout wide areas of tropical and subtropical Asia -- adds a twist to this evolutionary strategy.

Evolution: Speciation in the presence of gene flow (13 Jan 2021) Spatial isolation is known to promote speciation -- but researchers have now shown that, at least in yeast, the opposite is also true. New ecological variants can also evolve within thoroughly mixed populations.

Scientists study salmonella swimming behavior as clues to infection (13 Jan 2021)
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium bacteria (S. Typhimurium) commonly cause human gastroenteritis, inflammation of the lining of the intestines. The bacteria live inside the gut and can infect the epithelial cells that line its surface. Many studies have shown that Salmonella use a 'run-and-tumble' method of short swimming periods (runs) punct [+]

Researchers uncover viral small RNAs in mosquito cells (13 Jan 2021) Researchers provide a new genomics resource that details the small RNA transcriptomes (gene expression) of four bio-medically important mosquito species.

Scientists find antibody that blocks dengue virus (13 Jan 2021) A research team confirm an effective antibody that prevents the dengue virus from infecting cells in mice, and may lead to treatments for this and similar diseases.

Gene-editing produces tenfold increase in superbug slaying antibiotics (12 Jan 2021) Scientists have used gene-editing advances to achieve a tenfold increase in the production of super-bug targeting formicamycin antibiotics.

New method helps pocket-sized DNA sequencer achieve near-perfect accuracy (12 Jan 2021) Researchers have found a simple way to eliminate almost all sequencing errors produced by a widely used portable DNA sequencer (Oxford Nanopore Technologies' MinION device).

DNA in water used to uncover genes of invasive fish (12 Jan 2021) In a proof-of-principle study, researchers describe a new technique in which they analyzed environmental DNA - or eDNA - from water samples in Cayuga Lake to gather nuanced information about the presence of these invasive fish.

Immune response biomarkers, novel pathways in four marine mollusk species (12 Jan 2021) A new study assessed immune responses in four economically important marine mollusk species -- the blue mussel, soft-shell clam, Eastern oyster, and Atlantic jackknife clam -- and identified new biomarkers relating to changes in protein function involved in novel regulatory mechanisms of important metabolic and immunological pathways.

Comprehensive characterization of vascular structure in plants (12 Jan 2021) Plant researchers and bioinformatics researchers have succeeded for the first time in identifying the functions of the different cell types in the leaf vasculature of plants.

The odd structure of ORF8: Mapping the coronavirus protein linked to disease severity (12 Jan 2021)
A team of biologists who banded together to support COVID-19 science determined the atomic structure of a coronavirus protein thought to help the pathogen evade and dampen response from human immune cells. The structural map has laid the groundwork for new antiviral treatments and enabled further investigations into how the newly emerged virus rava [+]

Cracking the code of a shapeshifting protein (11 Jan 2021)
A shapeshifting immune system protein called XCL1 evolved from a single-shape ancestor hundreds of millions of years ago. Now, researchers have discovered the molecular basis for how this happened. In the process they uncovered principles that scientists can use to design purpose-built nanoscale transformers for use as biosensors, components of mol [+]



Noticias sobre Genética | EL PAÍS


Genética cotidiana (Prof. José Luis Micol Molina) 

Selección de noticias sobre genética aparecida en medios de comunicación español, y se añade un breve comentario. Se incluye un enlace a la noticia en español y cuando es posible, otro al artículo científico original en inglés. (Prof. José Luis Micol Molina, Catedrático de Genética, Universidad Miguel Hernández)


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